Using Three Elementary Particles to Construct the Physical World

Using Three Elementary Particles to Construct the Physical World

Huawang Li


In this paper, the existence of a new particle, Yizi, is inferred by determining the essential concept of force in physics. After abandoning the idealism of physics, I try to construct a physical framework from three elementary particles: protons, electrons, and Yizis (these elementary particles are the indivisible particles that constitute objects in general).

The effects of Yizi on the conversion of light, electricity, magnetism, mass, and energy as well as the strong nuclear and electromagnetic forces are emphasized. The gravitation of electromagnetic waves is measured using a Cavendish torsion balance. It is shown experimentally that electromagnetic waves not only produce pressure (repulsion) but also gravitational forces upon objects. The universe is a combination of three fundamental particles. Motion is eternal and follows the laws of conservation of energy and momentum. There is only one force: the magnitude of change in momentum per unit time for a group of particles travelling in one direction. Furthermore, this corresponds to the magnitude of the force that the group of particles exerts in that direction. From this perspective, all physical phenomena are relatively easy to explain.

Keywords: Strong nuclear force, Electromagnetic force, Elementary particle.


Modern physics endows matter with too many properties; this is most apparent in the creation of the quark model. First, the electron inelastic scattering experiment conducted [1] at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has demonstrated the indented surfaces of protons; however, this does not prove that protons are divisible, similar to how we cannot assume a golf ball—on account of its uneven surface—to be composed of numerous small balls held together. To say that a proton is divisible simply because of its indented surface is irresponsible and lacks rigor. Descriptions of the properties of "quarks" are even more implausible. "Quarks" not only take many forms but also exhibit fractional charges and other characteristics. Physics has become a myth in which anything can be changed.

In fact, from the clouds in the sky to the interstellar clouds floating in the depths of the universe, from the Brownian motion of dust in air to the probability distribution of electrons in space, and from the maglev train suspended in the air to the tightly clustered nucleons in the nucleus, it seems plausible to ask whether the universe is filled with a form of high-pressure gas.

Computers can arrange all necessary information using zeros and ones. Can the universe be arranged with the smallest number of elementary particles of any kind? In fact, three elementary particles following the laws of conservation of energy and momentum can be arranged and combined into all forms of matter via perpetual motion, without the need for further properties.

1. Physical Properties of the Unknown Particle Yizi

1.1. Average velocity of Yizi

The entire universe is filled with Yizi gas; this gas propagates light, just as sound is propagated by air. The average velocity of a Yizi particle moving at random in the Yizi gas determines the speed of light therein. Light will gradually become weaker during propagation (similar to sound) and will finally be dissipated by the Yizi gas. In Yizi gas, the electromagnetic waves emitted by celestial bodies of different energies reverberate in the universe (similar to an ever-restless ocean) and form the cosmic background temperature. Expressed otherwise , the cosmic background temperature was not generated by the Big Bang. The perpetual motion of Yizi particles entails that the temperature of the Yizi gas never reaches absolute zero. Yizi particles move in all directions with an equal probability. If their movement is divided into two orientations (i.e., front and back), then the average direction of motion in the forward direction is at an angle of 45° from the front. This is shown in Fig. 1; here, Vy denotes the average speed of the Yizi gas, and C is the component of Vy in the forward direction, which is also the speed at which electromagnetic waves propagate forwards in the Yizi gas (i.e., the speed of light). The average velocity of the Yizi gas is.

1.2. Mass of Yizi Particle

It is known that the energy carried by an electromagnetic wave is expressed as ε = γh, where h denotes the Planck's constant and γ is the frequency of the electromagnetic wave. In fact, h is the minimum average energy carried by an electromagnetic wave (i.e., the average energy carried by each Yizi particle: ), andmy is the mass of Yizi particle, where


1.3. Trajectory of Yizi Particle

Suppose that a
Yizi particle is a sphere with a indented surface, similar to a proton. Alongside translational motion, the Yizi particle also undergoes an eccentric rotational motion about the x-, y-, and z-axes, as shown in Fig. 2; therefore, its trajectory is an ellipse with a waveform.

Fig. 2. Yizi model.

No linear motion occurs in the microscopic world; this is why no elementary particles in the universe scatter.

Expressed otherwise, the volume of the universe and the number of elementary particles within it are both constant. When Yizi particles collides with each other, they exchange not only translational but also angular momentum. The edge collisions of Yizi particles induce in them a very high rotational speed. Yizi particles rotate eccentrically around their rotational axes in different directions, and the resultant trajectory forms a waveform ellipse, as observed for electrons and protons. This waveform ellipse trajectory of Yizi particles determines the polarization of the electromagnetic wave. The elliptic trajectories of elementary particles collect all elementary particles in the universe together and prevent them from separating.

2. Nucleus and Elementary Particles

2.1. Because the motions of elementary particles follow the laws of momentum and energy conservation, the mass differences between elementary particles determine the average velocity differences of elementary particles in space.

For example, protons and electrons collide with each other at the same speed; their respective velocities are calculated after the collision using the elastic collision formula, as shown in Fig. 3. Suppose that the proton’s velocity before collision is, and electron’s velocity before collision is. We know that the mass of a proton and electron are and, respectively; then, according to the elastic collision formula, we obtain the following:

The velocity of a proton after collision is.

Fig. 3. Protons and electrons colliding at equal velocities.

The velocity of an electron after collision is.

After the collision, the proton transfers some of its kinetic energy to the electron, which increases the electron’s velocity. Only when the momentum of a proton is equal and opposite to that of an electron (i.e., when ) will no energy transfer occur upon collision. Now, if the electron’s velocity is, then proton’s velocity will be only. When combined, the larger the mass of the particle, the smaller its average velocity; this is why the average velocity of a Yizi particle can reach.

2.2. Two elementary particles of different mass have different average velocities when combined and separated

Fig. 4. Proton suspended in Yizi gas.

(1) When a single proton is present in the Yizi gas (as shown in Fig. 4), the momentum of the proton and Yizi gas tend to be equal; this is expressed as, where denotes the mass of the nucleus, denotes the average velocity of the proton, denotes the mass of the Yizi particle, and denotes the Yizi particle’s average velocity, with /s.

The above result shows that the temperature of an object can never reach absolute zero, owing to the presence of Yizi gas.

Fig. 5. Yizi gas binding protons together.

(2) When a large number of protons are separated from the Yizi gas (as shown in Fig. 5), their kinetic energy tends to equal that of n Yizi particles in the Yizi gas. For example, when protons in the nucleus collide with each other to produce γ-rays, one proton collides with n Yizis per second, and n equals the frequency of the γ-rays (). The kinetic energy of a proton tends to be equal to that of n Yizi particles; this is expressed as, where h is the Planck constant andvpis the average rate of protons. This result shows that when multiple protons are clustered together, they absorb energy from the Yizi gas and achieve a high average velocity; this corresponds to an equivalent temperature of, where the right-hand figure is the absolute temperature. This is why all stars have very high internal temperatures and why nuclei contain large quantities of internal energy.

2.3. Protons have no positive charge and electrons have no negative charge

Because of its high density and pressure, Yizi gas not only forces multiple nucleons together to form nuclei but also constrains electrons around the nucleus. This ability of Yizi gas relates to four factors: (1) It is primarily related to the surface area of the nucleus: the greater the surface area, the greater the number of bounded electrons. (2) It relates to the kinetic energy of the nucleons inside the nucleus: when the kinetic energy of these nucleons increases, the kinetic energy of the electrons outside the nucleus also increases, and the number of electrons that can be bound decreases. (3) It relates to the curvature of the spherical nucleus: as the curvature increases, the number of electrons decreases. (4) It relates to the temperature: the higher the temperature, the fewer the electrons that can be bound.

Increasing the number of nucleons increases the time required for the kinetic energy to be transferred from the nucleus to the Yizi gas upon collision therebetween. In this way, the kinetic energy of the nucleons increases, which in turn increases the size of the nucleus and eventually converts it into an unstable radioactive element.

2.4. The spatial energy density, quantity density, and pressure of Yizi gas

Neglecting the influence of the kinetic energy, spherical curvature, and temperature of the nucleus upon the number of electrons outside it, we find that the number of electrons outside the nucleus is proportional to the nucleus’ surface area. (1) Given the radius of the proton ( [2]) and the number of electrons orbiting the nucleus of each element, we can calculate the actual radius R of each element's nucleus. If the nucleon number is A and the atomic number is Z, then. (2) It is known that the specific binding energy of an iron nucleus is , and that of the antimony nucleus is . The differences between these two ratios . Its energy is , which is the difference between the volume occupied by each nucleon in an antimony nucleus and that occupied by each nucleon in an iron one. The energy per unit volume of Yizi gas is . Given that the actual radius of an nucleus is , then the actual volume of the iron nucleus is , and the actual volume of space occupied by each nucleon in the iron nucleus is .

The actual radius of the antimony nucleus is ; hence, the actual volume of the antimony nucleus is , and that of the antimony nucleons is ; thus, .

The energy per unit volume of Yizi gas is expressed as follows:


The number of Yizi particles in the unit space volume is , where h is the Planck’s constant; then,


The mass of a cubic meter of Yizi gas is


In other words, there are of Yizi per cubic meter of our environment, which is difficult to imagine. It is even more incredible that we can live in such a large mass of material and still move freely. In fact, the space we occupy is very small. For example, if we know that the volume of a proton is and its mass is, then the mass density of the proton is.

A person weighing 60 kg actually occupies a spatial volume of Yizi gas of, and the weight of the Yizi gas they displace is.

In addition, the resistance of an object moving in Yizi gas depends on the average velocity of the Yizi particles. Yizi particles move at very high velocities; hence, they offer very little resistance to objects moving at low speeds. Low-velocity objects generate matter waves in Yizi gas. The difference between the number of times Yizi particles hit an object from the front (in the direction of motion) and back per unit time corresponds to the matter wave’s frequency n. The kinetic energy of the object is , where h is Planck's constant. Because all objects exist in the Yizi gas, their motion causes the Yizi gas to generate electromagnetic waves. In terms of the density change of Yizi gas, when the dense portion of the electromagnetic wave is in front of the object and thin part is behind, the electromagnetic wave exerts a backward force upon the object. When an electromagnetic wave propagates forward, the front of the object becomes thin, and the back becomes dense; hence, the electromagnetic wave exerts a forward force on the object. In low-speed objects, only a very small amount of kinetic energy is lost to the Yizi gas, in the form of electromagnetic waves. A high-speed object (close to or above the speed of light) creates a vortex of Yizi gas behind it and a shock wave in front of it; this generates an extremely large resistance on the object.

The mass density of the human body is ~700 times that of air, and people walking indoors do not feel air resistance. Similarly, the mass densities of protons and electrons are 1900 times that of Yizi gas. Therefore, low-speed objects in the Yizi gas do not experience resistance. When a particle moves close to the speed of light, the resistance exerted upon it by the Yizi gas becomes very large, rather than the mass of the particle increasing.

The pressure of Yizi gas in space is, which is equivalent to atmospheric pressures. The large pressure of the Yizi gas causes protons and electrons to be arranged and combined to form the visible universe.

2.5. How is the nuclear force generated?

If analyze the cause of the nuclear force, deriving it from the nature of force without imposing additional properties on the nucleus, we obtain the correct conclusion. The magnitude of the change in momentum per unit time for a group ofparticles travelling in a certain direction corresponds to the magnitude of the force produced by the group of particles in that direction. Consider the following experiment: Use small balls as the particle model, hold a cup containing balls 5 cm above a scale, and pour one ball onto the scale;

Fig. 6. Small balls falling onto scale.

the pointer of the scale will move a little. Then, pour 100 or more balls onto the scale continuously and quickly from the same height, as shown in Fig. 6; the pointer of the scale rotates. This indicates that when a large number of balls hit the scale, a constant and uniform pressure is generated. The greater the number of ball collisions, the greater the pressure on the scale. If these balls are dropped from a higher position, a greater pressure is observed. This observation shows that the greater the momenta of the balls, the larger the pressure registered by the scale. This is how the concept of force is described in junior high-school physics textbooks and is in fact the nature of force. However, when physicists consider gravity, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear force, they forget the essence of force. Gravitation, electromagnetism, and strong nuclear interactions are all produced by particle collisions.

Fig. 7. Scattergram of Yizi gas for two nucleons 10-15 m apart.

Fig. 8. Two nuclei colliding and oscillate to produce electromagnetic waves.

The universe is filled with Yizi gas. Although the quality of the Yizi gas is very small, its density and average velocity are very high. This allows the Yizi gas to generate extremely high pressures, such that multiple nuclei are tightly forced together to form nuclei that are difficult to separate. The nuclear force is a short-distance force, operating on length scales of . When the distance exceeds this order of magnitude, the nuclear force decreases rapidly and approaches zero [3]. As shown in Fig. 7, when two nucleons enter the nuclear interaction range (), the number of collisions between the two nucleons inside is reduced, whilst that outside is increased. Owing to the effects of Yizi gas pressure, the two nucleons rapidly approach each other. At the moment of collision, and according to the specific binding energy of the mediating nucleus, we know that the nucleons can be accelerated by the Yizi gas pressure (within an ultra-short distance ofm) to a velocity of more thanm/s. After collision, the vibration produces a density change in the Yizi gas and generates a shock wave in the form of an electromagnetic wave (as shown in Fig. 8).

2.6. Mass-energy equation

The energy per unit volume of Yizi gas is , and the number of Yizi particles per unit volume is . Under this energy, the number of Yizi particles displaced by particles with energyε is .

The mass of N Yizi particles is, where


Here,my is the mass of a Yizi particles and is equivalent to the Planck's constant. That is,m denotes the mass increase of a particle with kinetic energyε, and it is equal to the mass of the Yizi gas displaced by this particle.

Energy is always inseparable from physical particles, and particle energies can only be expressed as. No energy exists without mass, and mass and energy cannot be converted to each other.

3 . Gravitational Effects of Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic waves correspond to the density changes of Yizi gas, which are produced by proton–proton, proton–electron, or electron–electron collisions. The density change causes the Yizi gas to oscillate around the equilibrium point. Electromagnetic waves passing through and reflecting off of objects exert a gravitational effect upon those objects. Some of the electromagnetic wave is absorbed by the object and becomes its overall kinetic energy, producing a repulsive force; the rest is converted to the kinetic energy of the particles inside the object (internal energy).

When an electromagnetic wave is irradiated upon an object, these two effects occur simultaneously. When the gravitational force exceeds the repulsive force, the electromagnetic wave source is attracted to the object; when the repulsive force exceeds the gravitational one, a repulsion occurs. Why are electromagnetic waves attractive? The electromagnetic waves generated by the wave source increase the non-uniformity of the Yizi particles’ velocities in the Yizi gas. When Yizi particles cross a unit area between the light source and object (within a unit time), the number diffused from the inside to the outside is equal to the number diffusing from the outside to the inside; both are equal to n.

Assuming that the velocities of Yizi particles diffusing from the outside to inside are V1‘,V2’,V3‘,……Vn’, and the velocity of those diffusing from the inside to outside are V1’,V2’,V3’,……Vn’, then the average velocities of Yizi particles spreading from the outside in and the inside out areand. Then, we obtain

Let VV denote the non-uniformity of the velocities at which Yizi particles diffuse from the outside in; further, letV' denote the non-uniformity of the velocities of those diffusing from the inside out; then,

The electromagnetic wave generated by the light source increases the non-uniformity of the Yizi particles’ velocities in the direction of the Yizi gas trajectory; this non-uniformity increases closer to the light source. Therefore, the non-uniformity of the velocities of the Yizi particles diffusing from the inside out exceeds those diffusing from the outside in; that is,

Using an expansion, we obtain

By substituting ① and ② into ⑥ and ⑦ respectively, we obtain

Substituting ⑧ and ⑨ into ⑤ yields

Because the energy per unit volume is equal, we can use the law of energy conservation to obtain the following:

Then, we substitute ⑪ into ⑩ to obtain; that is,

Multiplying by on both sides, we obtain

Force is the change in momentum per unit time; thus, we can conclude from ⑬ that the force F created by the outside-in spread exceeds that from the outside-in spread and the gravitational force of the light source, F – F[4].

Molecules, atoms, protons, and electrons make up objects which exhibit different absorption and emission spectra under the same environmental conditions. Each type of particle can transfer its kinetic energy to the Yizi gas (under certain conditions) and emit light waves with a frequency equal to its energy. The emitted light waves become wider and weaker under an increase in the propagation distance.

Similarly, a large number of light waves of the same frequency as this emitted light wave act continuously on particles that have lost their kinetic energy; after many repetitions, these particles continue to absorb the electromagnetic energy of the Yizi gas until they regain their original kinetic energy. This explains the relaxation time of absorbed light waves in photoelectric effect experiments. There are no photons in the universe, and the light pressure formula is incorrect. This is proven experimentally in the next section.

4. Experiment: Use of Cavendish Scale to Measure the Gravitational Effects of Electromagnetic Waves on Objects.

4.1. Equipment: vacuum tank, vacuum pump, Cavendish torsion scale, laser torch, transformer, voltmeter, ammeter, whiteboard, and laser rangefinder. Fig. 9 shows the experimental environment.

4.2. Experimental principle

Fig. 9. Experimental set-up.

Fig. 10. Working principle for measuring the force of an electromagnetic wave using a Cavendish scale.

As shown in Fig. 10, a steel wire was suspended at the top of the vacuum tank, and a T-bar was fixed on its lower end. Two objects to be irradiated were installed on the ends of the T-bar. A blue laser was used as the light source (wavelength: 460 nm) and light was shone upon one of the irradiated objects. A small mirror was installed on the vertical section of the T-bar, and another green laser was used as a light source. The light beam was projected onto a small mirror on the vertical component of the T-bar; then, it was reflected onto a whiteboard some distance away. Using the trajectory of the light spot, I determined whether the force exerted on the illuminated object was attractive or repulsive; then, I estimated the magnitude of the force with respect to the distance travelled by the cursor.

The experiment proves that the torsion constant K of the suspension wire increases slowly under a decrease in the mass of the objects installed at the ends of the T-bar. Here, k was considered to be approximately constant. Two small shot balls ( ) were installed at either end of the T-bar; the torsion balance arm length was , swing period of the torsion balance was, the torsion constant of the suspension wire was, and the force acting on the irradiated object was , where S denotes the light point’s moved distance, and L is the distance from the small mirror (on the vertical portion of the T-bar) to the whiteboard.

4.3. Attention:

4.3.1. The high sensitivity of the torsion scale was ensured. The steel wire used in this experiment was 0.1 mm in diameter and 72 cm long.

4.3.2. The torsion scale was placed in a vacuum tank (with a vacuum of up to), to prevent air disturbances caused by temperature changes in the irradiated object, which might influence the torsion balance; when the residual gas pressure exceeds 103 Pa, this influence is very large, and different experimental results will be obtained. When the residual gas pressure is below 1 Pa, no obvious influence occurs.

4.3.3. The irradiation source was placed outside the vacuum tube, to prevent the influence of circuit equipment on the torsion balance.

4.3.4. I used the position of the light point on the whiteboard (when the torsion balance stopped swinging) as the center point; however, this center changes constantly (like the ebb and flow of the sea). Therefore, when force was applied to the torsion balance, the force can only be analyzed using the distance between the center point at a certain moment and the equilibrium point of the light as it oscillates back and forth on the whiteboard.

4.3.5. The torsion balance was very sensitive to light and temperature; thus, the experimental site was chosen as an environment featuring minimal change of backlight and temperature.

4.4. Experimental process

4.4.1. The irradiated object was a copper block, as shown in Fig. 11. The blue laser source (wavelength: 460 nm) was projected onto the object (light-source voltage = 4.738 V; electric current = 0.376 A, , , and) and the distance that the light point moved in the direction of repulsion was (as shown in Fig. 12); the repulsive force was

Fig. 11. Copper block as the irradiated object. Fig. 12. Spot displaced by 14 cm in direction of repulsion.

4.4.2. When a bearing steel block was irradiated, the blue laser (wavelength = 460 nm) was projected onto it, and the distance between the source and object was 1.094 m. The power of the light source was adjusted using a transformer. When the voltage of the light source was 4.718 V and its current 0.360 A, the distance moved by the light spot in the direction of attraction was , as shown in Fig. 13. The distance from the small mirror (on the vertical bar of the T-frame) to the whiteboard was , the length of the torsion balance arm was , the torsion constant of the suspension wire was , and the attraction was .

4.4.3. When the irradiated object was a 2-mm-thick transparent glass, the light from the blue laser source (wavelength: 460 nm) was projected onto the irradiated object. The voltage of the light source was 4.716 V and the current was 0.368 A. The distance the light traveled in the direction of attraction was S≈1cm, and the attractive force.

4.4.4. When the irradiated object was a small 4-mm-thick glass mirror, the blue laser source (wavelength: 460 nm) was projected onto it with a voltage of 4.737 V and current of 0.354 A. The distance moved by the point of light in the direction of repulsion was , , and the repulsive force was .

4.5. Experiment summary

The four experiments given above prove that the light pressure experiments conducted by the Russian physicist Lebedev were incomplete. He saw only that light repelled the object, and not that light attracted it. The light pressure formula ρ=S/c [5] holds that the light pressure on the surface of a fully absorbed object is equal to ρ, and when light vertically strikes a completely reflecting surface, it is equal to . The theoretical basis of the light pressure formula is Maxwell's classical theory of electromagnetism and the particle properties of photons. The second and third experiments above prove that the blue laser exerts a gravitational force upon the stainless steel objects and transparent glass; the first and fourth experiments show that the pressure produced by light vertically striking a highly absorbent object exceeded that caused by light vertically hitting a highly reflective object (the small mirror). The light source power and distance from the illuminated object were both constant; however, according to the light pressure formula and the theory that photons have momentum, when a light source shines vertically on the mirror, the mirror should receive twice the light pressure. However, the experimental results do not show this. These experiments show that the light pressure formula is only derived from theory, without comprehensive experimental proof. It also proves that photons do not exist.

5. Positrons and Mesons

5.1. Positron: First, from the perspective that physical particles cannot disappear, there is no energy without mass. Because positrons can release two γ photons, the energy of each photon is [6], indicating that positrons have an energy of . From the formula, we can determine the positron’s velocity as. This is faster than the speed of light and the average velocity of the commutator; hence, it is impossible for an electron to attain that velocity in an electron accelerator. Only in radioactive elements—where electrons collide with massive, high-energy protons—are the protons in the nucleus required to travel as fast as to achieve an energy of . Therefore, positrons are simply very high-energy electrons, and the Yizi gas pressure cannot bind them to the surface of the nucleus. Only when a positron collides with a low-energy electron and releases some of its kinetic energy into two medium-energy electrons can the Yizi pressure bind it to the surface of the nucleus and simultaneously release two gamma rays of each. The direction of particle deflection in the magnetic field depends on the kinetic energy of the particle. The electron has no negative charge, and the positron has no positive charge.

5.2. Meson: A meson is 285 times the mass of an electron [7] and is simply a high-energy electron. When the proton energy reaches , the proton and electron collide with each other; thus, the electron obtains the same energy. At this time, the electron velocity can reach. The electrons occupy a large volume in the commutator gas; hence, the mass of the commutator gas is 285 times that of the electron . Because the velocity exceeds that of light, the shock wave causes energy to be rapidly released; as a result, the meson has a very short life span.

6. The Electrostatic Force

The force that binds electrons to the nucleus is produced by the pressure of the Yizi gas. The nucleus has a limited ability to bind electrons. When the electron density is too high, the electrons repel each other and diffuse to achieve a smaller electron density; this is manifested as a mutual repulsion between electrons. When the electron density is too small, the nucleus absorb electrons from the surroundings, such that the density distribution of the surrounding electrons and nucleus reaches a balance; this is reflected in the mutual repulsion between nuclei. When negatively or positively charged objects are placed in contact with a neutral object, the electron density distribution becomes non-uniform. Both neutral objects and charged objects must bind electrons; hence, charged objects exhibit the capacity to attract small scraps of paper.

7. Magnetism

7.1 Permanent magnet materials: All moving objects create a magnetic field, which is a stream of air or a cyclone created by the flow of Yizi gas.

Fig.13.Permanent magnet generating a rotating magnetic field.

Permanent magnetic materials feature a unique lattice structure. The electrons in the crystal oscillate between the nuclei under the action of the Yizi gas. Upon colliding with surrounding particles, the electrons orbit around a group of molecules or atoms. The electrons’ rotation in the Yizi gas creates many cyclones therein, and these form a rotating magnetic field, as shown in Fig. 13. Cyclones rotating in the same direction attract each other, which is why the North and South poles of a magnet attract one another.

7.2. Magnetic field formed by energized wire: Place two energized wires parallel and close to each other. When the currents in the wire are aligned, the flow of electrons drives the flow of Yizi gas. The two strands of Yizi gas flow in the same direction and attract each other. When the currents in the wires flow in opposite directions, the two Yizi gases flow in opposite directions and repel one other.

7.3. Lorentz force

As shown in Fig. 14, the magnetic force of the multicyclone magnetic field points outwards from the paper, and the cyclone direction is defined as that in which the electrons in the magnetic material or spiral wire move around the nucleus. Hold out the left hand and extend the thumb in the direction of the magnetic force line; then, the direction indicated by the other four fingers is the direction of cyclone rotation.

Fig. 14. Electrons entering a rotating magnetic field.

When a beam of electrons enters the magnetic field vertically from left to right, it encounters the cyclone of Yizi gas and is subjected to the upward force exerted by the outer layers of Yizi particles. The electrons continuously collide with several cyclones and are subjected to a force perpendicular to their own direction of motion. This force becomes the centripetal force holding the electrons in their orbits; it makes them deviate from their original straight-line motion and rotate counterclockwise. When a proton enters the magnetic field, it can set off several cyclones in series because its kinetic energy is much greater than that of the electron. The force exerted upon the proton acts against that of the electron. This is the Lorentz force.

7.4. Electromagnetic induction

As shown in Fig. 15, the magnetic field line points outwards from the paper, and the current in the conducting wire increases; thus, the electron flow direction is downward and the Yizi gas cyclone rotates clockwise. The downward-moving electrons in the wire encounter the cyclone and are forced to the right; as a result, the wire moves to the right.

As shown in Fig. 16, the magnetic field lines point out of the paper, and a portion of the closed wire passes through the magnetic field, moving from left to right with a velocity V. The electrons in the wire are constantly colliding with the cyclones in the magnetic field. Under the effect of these cyclones, the free electrons in the wire move upward to form the current I, which is directed downward.

Fig.15. Force of rotating magnetic field on a live wire.

Fig.16. Force of a rotating magnetic field on a moving wire.

8. Summary

A dynamic theory of gravity was proposed as early as 1690 by Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, and later reintroduced by Georges-Louis Le Sage in 1748. The theory offers a mechanical explanation of Newtonian gravity with the flow of tiny invisible particles. These particles, which Le Sage calls "ultra-mundane corpuscles," smash into everything from all directions.

According to this model, any two objects will obscure some corpuscles that hit them, so the static pressure of the corpuscles hitting the object will be unbalanced, causing the two objects to move close to each other. This mechanical explanation of gravity was never widely accepted [8].

In fact, the correct understanding of "ultra-mundane corpuscles" is the key to fully understanding physics. Because "Le Sage’s theory of gravity" cannot correctly define the physical properties of "ultra-mundane corpuscles," and a significant mistake appeared in the explanation of the cause of universal gravitation, so physicists who believe in virtual matter have led physics down the wrong road.

In this paper, Yizi replaces the "ultra-mundane corpuscles," the material composition of the three elementary particles is the same, and the particle volume increases in direct proportion to the increase in the mass. The mass in question is the rest mass [9]. It is inferred from the indented surfaces of protons that Yizi and electrons may also have indented surfaces, and it is assumed that all collisions between elementary particles are elastic collisions. From the physical particle perspective, there is no energy without mass, so the minimum energy unit in blackbody radiation [10] should be Yizi’s average kinetic energy , and Yizi’s rest mass is 7.37×10 -51kg.

Protons and electrons move in Yizi gas, and the greater the movement speed, the larger the volume of Yizi gas displaced. The motion mass of protons and electrons is greater than their rest mass, the added mass is equal to the rest mass of Yizi gas they displace, and the Yizi motion has no such resistance, so Yizi’s motion mass is the same as its rest mass.

Since they are physical particles, the number of the three elementary particles that comprise the universe is fixed. The mass of the three elementary particles determines their average velocity in the universe. Particles with a lower mass have a higher average velocity, so electromagnetic waves can only travel through Yizi gas.

The indented surface elementary particles determines that they are moving linearly as well as in eccentric rotation, and their movement trajectory is an ellipse with sine waves. Because π is an infinite non-repeating decimal starting at any point in time, the starting point of the particle's eccentric motion will not coincide with the end point after one revolution. Because the trajectory of elementary particles is an ellipse with a sine wave, elementary particles in the universe will never fly out of the universe, demonstrating that electromagnetic waves have the properties of transverse waves.

When a single proton without electromagnetic radiation is in Yizi gas, the proton’s momentum tends to be equal to that of Yizi in Yizi gas, and the proton’s temperature tends to be absolute zero. When many protons congregate, their kinetic energy tends to be equal to that of Yizi in Yizi gas (considering that the protons’ volume is much larger than Yizi, so the protons should act on a group of Yizi at the same time rather than on one), and the protons have a very high temperature. Examples include the Sun’s central temperature, the Earth’s central temperature, and the inner temperature of a nucleus.

As Peter Guthrie Tait said of Le Sage’s theory of gravity, "The strangest thing about this theory is that, if it were true, it would be possible to deduce that all kinds of energy are ultimately kinetic" [11].

Experiments proved that thermal radiation is the root cause of gravitation [12] and contains electromagnetic waves with various frequencies. Specific objects can only absorb electromagnetic waves with certain frequencies. Some of the absorbed energy is converted into the object’s internal kinetic energy (internal energy), the other part into the object’s kinetic energy (repulsive force to do work), and unabsorbed electromagnetic waves produce gravitational effects on the object.

When a proton collides with another proton, if the proton has enough kinetic energy, it can displace the Yizi gas between the two protons. Since expending the Yizi gas consumes some the protons’ kinetic energy, the two protons are bound together by the pressure from the Yizi gas after the collision, and there is not enough energy to escape the constraint of the Yizi gas. This may be a type of shadowing phenomenon. If two protons have too much kinetic energy, the Yizi pressure will not hold them together after the collision. The average velocity of electrons in nature is very high. When electrons collide with protons, the electrons can easily displace the Yizi gas between them. The volume of protons is much larger than that of electrons, and the protons have strong shielding ability. After expending some energy by expelling the Yizi gas, the electrons are bound to the surface of the protons. The protons and electrons bound by the Yizi gas form all of the elements in the periodic table.

The flow or rotation of Yizi gas forms a magnetic field. We can see objects made of protons and electrons because they are mediated by Yizi gas, which cannot be seen by humans. Nothing would exist without Yizi gas. When we properly recognize its existence, all physical problems become extremely simple. In this way, the three elementary particles follow the laws of conservation of momentum and energy and form a colorful world through eternal motion.


[1]Electron inelastic scattering experiment: Edited by Xue fengjia, A Review of the centenary of the Nobel Prize in Physics 1990: quark.

[2]Proton radius range: Edited by Chen yisheng and Li zengzhi, University Physics Edited the second volume of Tianjin university press 1999.2

[3]The range of action of the nuclear force: Edited by Chen yisheng and Li zengzhi, University Physics Edited the second volume of Tianjin university press 1999.2

[4]Gravity formula: Li huawang Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: GJSFR Volume 18 Issue 11Version 1.0

[5]Light pressure formula: Yang guozhen, Encyclopedia of China Volume 74 (Second Edition)

[6]Positron emission tomography, Baidu Wenku

[7]The mass of the meson: Edited by Xue fengjia, A Review of the centenary of the Nobel Prize in Physics 1949: meson.

[8]Le Sage's Theory of Gravity, Wikipedia

[9]Zhu zhaoxuan, Encyclopedia of China, Vol. 74 (2nd edition), Encyclopedia of China Publishing House, 2009-07

[10]Blackbody radiation: Edited by Chen yisheng and Li zengzhi University Physics Edited the second volume of Tianjin university press 1999.2

[11]Le Sage's Theory of Gravity, Wikipedia

[12]: Li huawang Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: GJSFR Volume 18 Issue 11Version 1.0

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